ECM (Electronic counter measures)
Electronic counter measures are signals that are sent via satellite to disable pirate cards.
EIRP (Effective Isotropic Radiated Power)
This is the measure of the power of satellite signals that is emitted to the earth.
El-Az (Eleveation-Azimuth) Mount
A simple fixed antenna that allows you to adjust it in horizontal and vertical directions.
The ankle between the direction of received signals and the horizontal.
The encoding of signals. You can’t receive encoded signals and use them if you don’t have the decoder. Also
Converter (9.750 GHz oscillator) or receiver that can receive signals in the frequency width of 10.700-10.950
Electronic program guide- an on-screen graphical program view for digital satellite programs. The EPG is sent
by the program itself and the receiver just displays it. If it is not sent the receiver display no Information
or no EPG.
A coding system used for programs emitted in the D-MAC and D2MAC system.
A timer that is placed in the receiver. It enables the receiver to turn itself on or off when you are not at
home so you can record programs.
The frequency width of the receiver that allows you to receive all frequencies that receives a universal
converter. Usually 950-2050MHz or 700-2150 MHz.
A connector used to connect converter and receivers.
FEC (Forward Error Correction)
Signals that are added to the main signal so that they can correct errors that may appear during emissions.
Signal collector. Collects signals into the focus of an antenna and send them to the LNB
A flat, usually quadratic antenna that collect satellite signals on its surface and sends them to the LNB
FLYING FEED LNB
A satellite antenna that has a LNB that is placed on motor, which allows to move it lef and right so you can
receive signals from more satellites.
Area in front of the antenna where signals of the focus antenna are collected.
Areas on earth where signals from one satellite can be received. Includes the power of the received signal.
FREE TO AIR (FTA)
Emitting satellite program without encoding them.
FSS (fixed satellite services) BAND
A part of the frequencies 10.700-11.700GHz that are in commercial use, but today they are mostly used for
The orbit used by TV satellites at a height of 36.000km. at this height satellite move with the same speed as
the earth does, so this satellites are always visible on the same spot.
See geostationary orbit
Gigahertz. 1 000MHz. One billion vibrations in one second.
A subversion of satellite antenna that uses a concave hyperbolic reflector that points signals to the converter
and that is placed opposite of the main reflector.
This is a method of sending two programs on one transponder by dividing the bandwidth. It decreases the EIRP
for about 4dB. Therefore you need an antenna with a bigger scope.
HORISON TO HORISON
Device for the turning of antennas. It contains a motor and enables the antenna to receive all satellites in a
belt of 180°.
A satellite antenna that uses a bigger feedhorn and no reflector.
HDTV (high definition Television)
A future TV system that has more lines that build the visible picture with more quality. PAL uses 625 lines and
HDTV uses 1250 lines.
IF (intermediate frequency)
The signal in the cable between the receiver and the LNB. It’s also the reception frequency of a receiver. By
standard it is 950-1750MHz.
Devices that is inserted into the LNB cable. It enables the LNB to receive frequencies it normally couldn’t.
The movement of satellites above and bellow the ARC. Satellites that are placed in this orbit usually have
already come to their ends. To receive their signals a polarmount antenna is needed.
Device for measuring of vertical ankles.
Disturbances in sound and picture caused by unwanted signals.
IRD (integrated Receiver Decoder)
Device that unifies a satellite receiver and a decoder.
A coding system used for digital programs by German, Italian, Greek and Arabic programs.
It’s an audio de-emphasis system, which is used on some programs. It gives you a cleaner sound.
Kilohertz. 1000 vibrations in one second.
Frequency width from 10.700-18.000Ghz that is used for satellite transmissions.
Expressed in degrees. Refers to the geographical width. Distance south or north from the equator.
Device ina LNB that receives satellite signals and transforms them into frequencies that can be used by the
receiver. Mostly used are 10.000GHz for FSS ban, 9.750GHz for enhanced FSS band, 10.750 for DBS band, 11.475
GHz for telecom satellites, 10.600 GHz for the upper band of a universal LNB and 5.150Ghz for C band.
Distance to east or west from the 0th meridian. Geographical length.
Pairs of incoming and exiting connections on a receiver that enable adding other equipment into the TV signal.
LNB (Low noise block)
LNB, converter. Device that receives and enhances incoming satellite signals and then transforms them into
electric signals of a lower frequency so that they can be used by a receiver.
Part f the TV signal that carries information about the luminance of the picture.
MAC (Multiplexed Analogue Components)
Divided transmission of analogue components. This system was especially developed for satellite TV. It is
replaced by the digital standard MPEG 2!
A polarisation chooser that is controlled by the receiver’s power.
MARCONI TYPE LNB
Device that unifies LNB and polariser. Polarisations are chosen by using voltages of 13V and 18V. Most of
today’s LNB’s are of this kind.
MCPC (Multi Channel Per Carrier)
Most digital programs are transmitted so that there send more programs on one transponder. All these programs
have the same frequency but they differ in video and audio by their PID.
It’s servo polariser that is controlled by electric impulses from the receiver.
Coding system for digital programs that is used by the Canal Plus Group and some other stations.
Megahertz. 1.000.000 vibrations in a second. Equal to 1000 KHz.
Electromagnetic waves at frequencies from 1-30 GHz.
This device forces TV picture and sound on a radio carrier for ground emitting or on a looprthrough.
MOUNTIt is the carrier of an antenna. It is used for the installation and stabilisation of an antenna.
MPEG (Moving Pictures Experts Group)
International group for achieving standards in digital TV. MPEG 1 – picture quality of VHS and CD-Video, MPEG
2- picture quality useful for satellite transmission.
An unmovable satellite antenna that has two or more LNB and is therefore enable dto receive signals from more
A coding system that is used for analogue and digital programs.
Unwanted signal in a wanted one.
This is the rustling that a LNB adds to a signal. It expresses the quality of LNB and is written in dB, i.e.
0.7 dB. The lower it is the better the LNB. Today we have LNB’s with a noise figure of 0.4dB.
NTSC (National Television Standards Committee)
System of television transmission mostly used in USA and Japan. On a Pal receiver there will be no viewable
picture at all or there will be a b/w picture with many disturbances. In jokes this system is called Never The
NVOD (Near Video On Demand)
Emitting programs, mostly movies, with a time delay of mostly 15 minutes to half an hour, so you can always
watch the movie with only little waiting times.
Type of satellite antennas with the focus somewhat bellow the centre.
OMT (orthogonal mode transducer)
Device, which enables two LNB’s to receive horizontal and vertical polarisations at the same time.
The orbit of a satellite around the world.